The origins of hazelnuts came from prehistory since time immemorial. Hazelnuts are quote in many writings from the Greeks with Hermes god to Arabian.
Today, the major production of hazelnuts in the world is in North of Turkey in the Black sea region (all around the coast between Istanbul and Trabzon).
There is also a big production of hazelnuts in Italy.
|Estimated World Hazelnuts Production 2014/2015|
|Countries||PRODUCTION per TONS|
Source : XXXIII World Nut and Dried Fruit Congress Melbourne May 2014
The harvesting period is from August to October.
A hazelnuts tree begin to produce between 8 and 12 years old, it can produce until 60.
Countries of origin
The main producer countries are Turkey and Italy because they produce around 80% of world production.
These last year’s new countries develop their production as Azerbaijan and Georgia.
There are many varieties of hazelnuts but we only care about their origin and place of production. Indeed, they are indicated with their production area as Naples in Italy for example.
In Turkey, hazelnuts produced are primarily from the Tombul style (round) at 75 % of the total production. The general name of Turkish hazelnuts is Levant. In that name we can find Giresun that are hazelnuts easy to blanch and they are use in chocolate industry. The Akcakoca hazelnuts, which are also Levant, are more difficult to blanch but very beautiful nuts.
In Italy, the round hazelnuts are Piedmont, Sicilian, Mortarelle and Roman. This last one content less fatty than the others but it’s more difficult to blanch. The Naples and San Giovanni have a long shape.
Spain produce mostly a hazelnut named Tarragona that came from the Tarragona Reus region.
In USA, the production is in Oregon, there are two kind which impose the Barcelona and the Ennis. They are classified like that:
Giant : 23 mm + ; Jumbo: 22mm+ ; Large : 20mm+ ; Standard : 17-19mm
Shelled hazelnuts can be with their natural shape or blanched. As for almonds the blanching factor is very important.
Under natural shape:
f.a.q : fair average quality = 9-15mm ; Standard Extra = + de 15mm ; Standard 1 = 13-15mm ; Standard 2 = 11-13mm ; Standard 3 = 9-11mm
Under blanched shape:
f.a.q : fair average quality = 9-15mm ; Standard 1 = 12-14mm ; Standard 2 = 10-12mm