Hazelnuts

History

The origins of hazelnuts came from prehistory since time immemorial. Hazelnuts are quote in many writings from the Greeks with Hermes god to Arabian.

Today, the major production of hazelnuts in the world is in North of Turkey in the Black sea region (all around the coast between Istanbul and Trabzon).

 

Production

There is also a big production of hazelnuts in Italy.

Estimated World Hazelnuts Production 2014/2015
Countries PRODUCTION per TONS
TURKEY           565 000 
ITALY             105 000  
AZERBAIJAN             28 000  
USA             41 000  
GEORGIA             37 000  
SPAIN             20 500  
OTHERS             25 000  
TOTAL           821 500  

Source : XXXIII World Nut and Dried Fruit Congress Melbourne May 2014

Harvest

The harvesting period is from August to October.

A hazelnuts tree begin to produce between 8 and 12 years old, it can produce until 60.

 

Countries of origin

The main producer countries are Turkey and Italy because they produce around 80% of world production.

These last year’s new countries develop their production as Azerbaijan and Georgia.

Varieties:

There are many varieties of hazelnuts but we only care about their origin and place of production. Indeed, they are indicated with their production area as Naples in Italy for example.

Grades:

In Turkey, hazelnuts produced are primarily from the Tombul style (round) at 75 % of the total production. The general name of Turkish hazelnuts is Levant. In that name we can find Giresun that are hazelnuts easy to blanch and they are use in chocolate industry. The Akcakoca hazelnuts, which are also Levant, are more difficult to blanch but very beautiful nuts.

In Italy, the round hazelnuts are Piedmont, Sicilian, Mortarelle and Roman. This last one content less fatty than the others but it’s more difficult to blanch. The Naples and San Giovanni have a long shape.

Spain produce mostly a hazelnut named Tarragona that came from the Tarragona Reus region.

In USA, the production is in Oregon, there are two kind which impose the Barcelona and the Ennis. They are classified like that:

Giant : 23 mm + ; Jumbo: 22mm+ ; Large : 20mm+ ; Standard : 17-19mm 

Shelled hazelnuts can be with their natural shape or blanched. As for almonds the blanching factor is very important. 

 Under natural shape:

f.a.q : fair average quality = 9-15mm ; Standard Extra = + de 15mm ; Standard 1 = 13-15mm ; Standard 2 = 11-13mm ; Standard 3 = 9-11mm

Under blanched shape:

f.a.q : fair average quality = 9-15mm ; Standard 1 = 12-14mm ; Standard 2 = 10-12mm